Partial Bibliography of cyber-warfare topics

This list is not comprehensive but a selected sampling of work going down the path of cyber-warfare.

U.S. Policy and low intensity-conflict: Potentials for military struggles in the 1980’s (1981). New York: Transaction Books.

Low-intensity conflict and modern technology (1986). Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press.

Low-intensity conflict: The pattern of warfare in the modern world (1989). Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books.

In Athena’s camp: Preparing for conflict in the information age (1997). Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Presidential Decision Directive/NSC-63 (1998).  Retrieved November 1, 2007, from

The changing role of information in warfare (1999). Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

A nation transformed by information: How information has shaped the United States from colonial times to the present (2000). New York: Oxford University Press.

Leadership: The warriors art (2001). Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Army War College Foundation Press.

The transnational dimension of cyber crime and terrorism (2001). Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.

Homeland Security Presidential Directive/Hspd-7 (2003).  Retrieved November 1, 2007, from

Information operations: Warfare and the hard reality of soft power (2004). Dulles, VA: Brasseys Inc.

A concept for distributed operations (2005).  (pp. 8): Department of the Navy Headquarters U.S. Marine Corps.

Joint publications 3-13: Information Operations (2006). United States Government.

The U.S. Army Marine Corps counterinsurgency field manual: US Army field manual No. 3-24 Marine Corps war-fighting publication No. 3-33.5 (2007). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

China spying ‘biggest US threat’ (2007, November 15, 2007).  International Version. Retrieved November 15, 2007, from

China denies Pentagon cyber-raid (2007, September 4, 2007).  International Version. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from

Adam, A. E. (2004). Hacking into hacking: Gender and the hacker phenomenon. ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society, 32(7).

Adams, T. K. (1998). Radical destabilizing effects of new technologies. Parameters, 1998(Autumn), 99-111.

Adkins, M., Kruse, J., & Younger, R. (2002). Ubiquitous computing: Omnipresent technology in support of network centric warfare. Paper presented at the 35th Hawaii International Conference of Systems Sciences, Hawaii.

Alexander, K. B. (2007). Warfighting in cyberspace. Joint Forces Quarterly, 3rd Quarter(46), 58-61.

Anderson, P. S. (2008). Critical infrastructure protection in the information age Retrieved June 1, 2008, from

Arquilla, J., & Ronfeldt, D. (1997). XXXX TBD XXX A new epoch and spectrum of conflict. In J. Arquilla & D. Ronfeldt (Eds.), In Athena’s camp: Preparing for conflict in the information age (pp. 501). Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Arquilla, J., & Ronfeldt, D. (2001). Networks and netwars: The future of terror, crime, and militancy. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Augustine, N. R. (1986). Land Warfare. IEEE Transaction on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, AES-22(September), 487-512.

Bailey, M., Cooke, E., Jahanian, F., Provos, N., Rosaen, K., & Watson, D. (2005). Data reduction for the scalable automated anlaysis of distributed darknet traffic. Paper presented at the Internet Measurement Conference, Berkley, CA.

Baker, J. (2006). Systems thinking and counterinsurgencies. Parameters, 2006(Winter), 26-43.

Bakken, D. E., Rupa, P., Blough, D. M., Franz, A. A., & Palmer, T. J. (2004). Anonymity and desensitization of usable data sets. IEEE Security and Privacy November/December, 34-40.

Barno, D. (2006). Challenges in fighting a global insurgency. Parameters, 2006(Summer), 15-29.

Bayles, W. J. (2001). The ethics of computer network attack. Parameters, 2001(Spring), 44-58.

Becker, J. (1980). Computer crime career of the future? Computer Careers Magazine, October.

Berinato, S. (2007, May 31, 2007). How online criminals make themselves tough to find, near impossible to nab. CIO Retrieved October 1, 2008, from

Berkowitz, B. D. (2003). The new face of war: How war will be fought in the 21st century. New York: Free Press.

Berkowitz, B. D., & Goodman, A. E. (1989). Strategic intelligence for American national security. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Betts, R. K. (1998). Intelligence warning: Old problems, new agendas. Parameters, 1998(Spring), 26-35.

Bhaskar, R. (2006). State and local law enforcement is not ready for a cyber Katrina. Communications of the ACM, 49(2), 81-83.

Bishop, M. (2006). Teaching context in information secuirty. ACM Journal of educational resources in computing, 6(3).

Bishop, M. (2006). China’s cyber warriors. Foreign Policy.

Blank, S. (2003). Rethinking asymmetric threats. Carlisle, PA: Stategic Studies Insitute U.S. Army War College.

Blank, S., Grinter, L. E., Magyar, K. P., Ware, L. B., & Weathers, B. E. (1990). Responding to low-intensity conflict challenges. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press.

Bracken, P. (2006). Net assessment: A practical guide. Parameters, 2006(Spring), 90-100.

Bradenburger, A. M., & Nalebuff, B. J. (1995). The right game: Use game theory to shape strategy. Harvard Business Review(July-August), 57-71.

Brenner, B. (2005). Myfip’s Titan Rain connection Retrieved November 17, 2007, from,289142,sid14_gci1120855,00.html

Bridis, T. (2005). CIA overseeing 3-day war game on Internet. Associated Press,

Brooks, P. (2000). A vision of PSYOP in the information age. Special Warfare(Winter).

Brophy, E. (2002). The outlaw ‘Net’: Opposition to IANN’s new Internet order. ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society, 32(4).

Brubaker, J. R. (2005). Low-intensity cultural conflict: Critical art, terrorism and the neurolinguistic environment. Anthropology of Complex Societies, 2005(Spring), 1-7.

Bunker, R. (1996 ). Generations, waves, epochs: Modes of warfare and the RPMA. Airpower Journal(Spring), 1-10.

Burton, A. M., Schofield, D., & Goodwin, L. M. (2005). Gates of global perception: Forensic graphics for evidence presentation. Paper presented at the 13th annual ACM International Conference on Multimedia, Singapore.

Byres, E., & Lowe, J. (2004). The myths and facts behind cyber security risks for industrial control systems. Paper presented at the VDE Congress, Berlin, Germany.

Cahill, T. P., Rozinov, K., & Mule, C. (2003). Cyber warfare peacekeeping. Paper presented at the Workshop on Information Assurance and Security, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY.

Caloyannides, M. (2003). Privacy vs. information technology. IEEE Security and Privacy, January/February.

Ceruti, M. G. (2001). Mobile agents in network-centric warfare. Paper presented at the 5th International Autonomous Decentralized Systems, Dallas, TX.

Chambliss, S. (2005). We have not correctly framed the debate on intelligence reform. Parameters, 2005(Spring), 5-13.

Claburn, T. (2008). CIA admits cyber attacks blacked out cities Retrieved October 1, 2008, from

Clark, R. M. (2004). Intelligence analysis a target-centric approach. Washington D.C: CQ Press.

Clarke, R. A. (1988). Information technology and dataveillance. Communications of the ACM, 31(5), 498-512.

Clausewitz, C. V. (1982). On war (A. Rapoport, Trans.). London: Penguin Books.

Clausewitz, C. V. (2003). Principles of war. Minneola, New York: Dover Publication.

Cogan, K. J. (2007). A view of command, control, communications, and computer architectures at the dawn of network centric warfare. Issue Paper Center for Strategic Leadership, 2-07.

Coldwell, R. A. (1993). University students’ attitudes towards computer crime: A research note. Computers and Society, 23(1-2).

Collett, S. (2005). Precious Cargo Retrieved November 17, 2007, from

Cook, J. M. (1986). What C.S. graduates don’t learn about security concepts and ethical standards or- “Every company has its share of damn fools. Now every damn fool has access to a computer”. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 18(1), 89-96.

Cooper, J. R. (2005). Curing analytic pathologies: Pathways to improved intelligence analysis. Washington D.C. : Center for Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency.

Cooper, S. (2006). China’s secret war. Popular Mechanics, August.

Corn, D. (1996). Pentagon trolls the net. The Nation, March 4.

Cronin, A. K. (2006). Cyber-mobilization: The new leve’e en masse. Parameters, 2006(Summer), 77-87.

Curran, K., Morrissey, C., Fagan, C., Murphy, C., O’Donnell, B., Fitzpatrick, G., et al. (2005). Monitoring hacker activity with a honeynet. International Journal of Network Management, 15(January), 123-134.

Czerwinski, T. J. (1996). Command and control at the crossroads. Parameters, 1996(Autumn), 121-132.

Damian, D. E., & Zowghi, D. (2003). An insight into the interplay between culture, conflict, and distance in globally distributed requirements negotiations. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Oahu, Hawaii.

Dartnell, M. Y. (2006). Insurgency online: Web activism and global conflict. Toronto: University Toronto Press.

Dean, D. J. (1986). The Air Force role in low-intensity conflict. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press.

Denning, D. E. (1999). Information warfare and security. New York: Addison Wesley.

Denning, D. E. (2000). Cyberterrorism Retrieved November 1, 2007, from

Denning, P., Parker, D. B., Nycum, S. H., & Ware, W. H. (1984). Computers, crime and privacy a national dilemma: Congressional testimony from the industry. Communications of the ACM, 27(4), 312-321.

Deptula, D. A., & Brown, G. (2008). A house divided: The indivisibility of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Air & Space Power Journal, Summer, 1-8.

Dion, E. (2004). The e-Forces!: The evolution of battle-groupings in the face of 21st century challenges. Canadian Army Journal(7), 3.

Djemaiel, Y., & Boudriga, N. (2007). A global marking scheme for tracing cyber attacks. Paper presented at the Symposium on Applied Computing, Seoul Korea.

Doyle, C. (2008). Cybercrime: An overview of the federal computer fraud and abuse statute and related federal criminal laws. Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress.

Dresher, M. (1981). The mathematics of games of strategy: Theory and applications. New York: Dover.

Drogin, B. (1999, October 7). Russians seem to be hacking into Pentagon: Sensitive information taken–but nothing top secret.,

Dudenhoeffer, D., Miller, C., & Manic, M. (2007, Summer). Interdependency modeling and emergency response. Paper presented at the Summer Computer Simulation Conference, San Diego, CA.

Dulles, A. W. (2006). The craft of intelligence: America’s legendary spy master on the fundamentals of intelligence gather for a free world. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press.

Dunlap, C. (1997). 21st century land warfare: Four dangerous myths. Parameters, 1997(Autumn), 27-37.

Dunnigan, J. F. (2000). Wargames handbook: How to play and design commercial and professional wargames (Third ed.). New York: Writers Club Press.

Echevarria, A. (2005). Fourth-generation war and other myths. Strategic Studies Institute: United States Army War College.

Elbirt, A. J. (2003). Information warfare: Are you at risk. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine(Winter), 13-19.

Endicott-Popovsky, B., Frincke, D. A., & Taylor, C. A. (2997). A theoretical framework for organizational network forensic readiness. Journal of Computers, 2(3), 1-11.

Erbacher, R. F. (2005). Extending command and control infrastructures to cyber warfare assets. Paper presented at the Workshop on Information Assurance and Security United States Military Academy, West Point, NY.

Erbschloe, M. (2001). Information warfare: How to survive cyber attacks. Berkley California: Osborne/McGraw Hill.

Espiner, T. (2005, November 23, 2005). Security experts lift lid on Chinese hack attacks Retrieved November 17, 2007, 2007, from

Evron, G. (2008). Battling botnets and online mobs: Estonia’s defense efforts during the Internet war. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs(Winter/Spring), 121-126.

Falk, C. (2004). Gray hat hacking: Morally black and white. Center for Educationa and Research in Informaiton Assurance and Security: Purdue University.

Fleming, B. (2004). Can reading Clausewitz save us from future mistakes. Parameters, 2004(Spring), 62-76.

Forno, R., & Baklarz, R. (1997). The art of information warfare: Insight into the knowledge warrior philosophy. Dunkirk, MD: Universal Publishers.

Franz, T., Durkin, M., Williams, P., Baines, R., & Mills, R. (2007). Defining information operations forces. Air & Space Power Journal(Summer), 1-11.

Friedman, T. L. (1999). The Lexus and the olive tree: Understanding globalization. New York: FSG Books.

Fuxman, A., Giorgini, P., Kolp, M., & Mylopoulos, J. (2001). Information systems as social structures. Paper presented at the The International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems, Ogunquit, Maine, USA.

Gal-Or, E., & Ghose, A. (2004). Chapter 8: The economic consequences of sharing security information Advances in Information Security (Vol. 12): Springer US.

Gallagher, C. J. J. (1992). Low-intensity conflict: A guide for tactics, techniques, and procedures. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.

Galliers, R. D., & Land, F. F. (1987). Choosing appropriate information systems research methodologies. Communications of the ACM, 30(11), 900-902.

Gantz, J., & Rochester, J. B. (2005). Pirates of the digital millennium: How the intellectual property wars damage or personal freedoms, our jobs, and the world economy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Gast, A. P. (2003). The impact of restricting information access on science and technology Retrieved October 1, 2008, from

Giacomello, G. (2004). Bangs for the buck: A cost benefit analysis of cyberterrorism. Studies in conflict & terrorism, 27, 387-408.

Gibson, W. (1984). Neuromancer. New York: Ace Books.

Giffin, R. E., & Reid, D. J. (2003, June 17-19). A woven web of guesses, canto one: Network centric warfare and the myth of the new economy. Paper presented at the 8th International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium, National Defense University, Washington DC.

Gordon, L. A., & Loeb, M. P. (2002). The economics of information security investment. ACM Transactions of information system security, 5(4), 438-457.

Gordon, S. (2003). Cyberterrorism? (pp. 15). Cupertino, CA: Symantec Corporation.

Grabo, C. M. (2004). Anticipating surprise: Analysis for strategic warning. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America.

Graham, P. (2004). Hackers & painters big ideas from the computer age. Sebestopol, CA: O’Reilly.

Granger, S. (1994). The hacker ethic. Paper presented at the Ethics of the Computer Age, Gatlinburg, TN.

Grant, T. J., Venter, H. S., & Eloff, J. H. P. (2007, October 2-3). Simulating adversarial interactions between intruders and system administrators using OODA-RR. Paper presented at the 2007 Annual Research Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists on IT Research in Developing Countries, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

Grasso, V. B. (2005). Defense outsourcing: The OMB circular A-76 policy. Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress.

Gray, C. S. (2007). Irregular warfare: One nature, many characters. Strategic Studies Quarterly(Winter), 35-57.

Grimmett, R. F. (2006). 9/11 Commission recommendations: Implementation status. Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress.

Groh, J. L. (2008). Network-centric warfare: Leveraging the power of information U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Issues. Third Edition (Vol. 1, pp. 323-338). Carlisle, PA: Army War College: Strategic Studies Institute.

Gross, L. (1948). The Peace of Westphalia, 1648-1948. The American Jouranl of International Law, 42(1), 20-41.

Grow, B., & Bush, J. (2005). Hacker hunters: An elite force takes on the dark side of computing Retrieved October 1, 2008, from

Gupta, A., & Laliberte, S. (2004). Security by example defend I.T. New York: Addison Wesley.

Haffa, R. P., & Patton, J. H. (1998). Gaming the “Systems of Systems”. Parameters, 1998(Spring), 110-121.

Hafiz, M. (2006). McCumber Cube Retrieved February 1, 2009, from

Hafner, K., & Lyon, M. (1996). Where wizards stay up late: The origins of the Internet. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Hammes, T. X. (2004). The sling and the stone: On war in the 21st century. St. Paul, Mn: Zenith Press.

Hammes, T. X. (2007). Fourth generation warfare evolves, fifth emerges. Military Review, May-June, 14-23.

Hammonds, G. L. (1993). Confidentiality, integrity, assured service: Tying security all together. Paper presented at the New Security Paradigms Workshop Little Compton, Rhode Island.

Harknet, R. J. (1996). Information warfare and deterrence. Parameters, 1996(Autumn), 93-107.

Harris, S. (2004). Watching people on behalf of Uncle Sam Retrieved March 16, 2004, from

Harvey, R. (2007). Third baby dies from drug overdose Retrieved November 17, 2007, from

Henry, R., & Peartree, E. C. (1998). Military theory and information warfare. Parameters, 1998(Autumn), 121-135.

Herman, M. (1998-99). Modeling the revolution in military affairs. Joint Forces Quarterly, Autumn/Winter, 85-90.

Hicks, B. (2004, October 24-28). Transforming avionics architecture to support network centric warfare. Paper presented at the The 23rd Digital Avionics Systems Conference.

Hoffman, F. G. (2007). Conflict in the 21st century: The rise of hybrid wars (pp. 1-72). Arlington, VA: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.

Hollinger, R. C. (1990). Hackers: Computer heroes or electronic highwaymen? Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology, Baltimore, Maryland.

Hollingsworth, D., & Redmond, T. (2000). Enhancing operating system resistance to information warfare. Paper presented at the 21st Century Military Communications Conference, Los Angeles, California.

Hollis, D. B. (2007). Why states need an international law for information operations. Temple University Beasley School of Law.

Hooker, R. D. (2005). Beyond Vom Kriege: The character and conduct of modern war. Parameters, 2005(Summer), 4-17.

Householder, A., Houle, K., & Dougherty, C. (2002). Computer attack trends challenge internet security. Security & Privacy (Computer), 35(4), 5-7.

Howerton, P. W. (1985). Computer crime: A tutorial. Paper presented at the ACM Annual Conference on the Range of Computing : Mid-80’s Perspective, Denver, Colorado.

Huntington, S. P. (1993). The clash of civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 72(3), 22-49.

Ilett, D. (2005). Security Guru slams misuse of ‘cyberterrorism’ Retrieved November 1, 2007, from

Jackson, G. A. (2004). Open source is the answer. Now what was the question? The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 24, 2004.

Jajodia, S., Ammann, P., & McCollum, C. D. (1999). Surviving information warfare attacks. Computer(April), 57-63.

James, J. R. (2003, January 6-9). Modeling of information dominance in complex systems: A system partitioning and hybrid control framework. Paper presented at the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.

Jo, K. Y. (1998). Virtual network representations of the information warfare battlespace. Paper presented at the Military Communications Conference, Boston, MA.

Jones, G. (2001). Working with the CIA. Parameters, 2001(Winter), 28-39.

Kahn, D. (1996). The code breakers: The Comprehensive history of secret communication from ancient times to the Internet. New York: Scribner.

Kewley, D. L., & Lowry, J. (2001, June 5-6). Observations on the effects of defense in depth on adversary behavior in cyber warfare. Paper presented at the Workshop on Information Assurance and Security, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY.

Kling, R. (1980). Computer abuse and computer crim as organizational activities. Computer Law Journal, 2(2), 12-24.

Klinger, J. (2006). The social science of Carl von Clausewitz. Parameters, 2006(Spring), 79-89.

Knezo, G. J. (2006). Homeland security research and development funding, organization, and oversight (pp. 1-6). Congressional Research Service: The Library of Congress.

Kumagai, J. (2001). The web as a weapon. IEEE Spectrum(January), 118-121.

Lasker, J. (2005). U.S. military’s elite hacker crew Retrieved October 1, 2008, from

Lau, R. W. H., Lam, K.-Y., & Cheung, S.-L. (1996). The failure of anti-hacking legislation: A Hong Kong perspective. Paper presented at the 3rd ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, New Delhi, India.

Lee, J. A. N., Segal, G., & Steier, R. (1986). Positive alternatives: A report on an ACM panel on hacking. Communications of the ACM, 29(4), 297-299.

Lemos, R. (2005). Backup tapes are backdoor for ID thieves Retrieved November 17, 2007, from

Lesser, I. O., Hoffman, B., Arquilla, J., Ronfeldt, D., & Zanini, M. (1999). Countering the new terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Levy, S. (1984). Hackers: Heroes of the computer revolution. New York: Penguin Putnam.

Levy, S. (2001). Crypto: How the code rebels beat the government saving privacy in the digital age. New York: Penguin Putnam.

Lewandowski, J. O. (2005, November 6-9). Creating a culture of technical caution: Addressing the issues of security, privacy protection, and the ethical use of technology. Paper presented at the Special Interest Group on University and College Computing Services Conference, Monterey, California.

Lewis, J. A. (2002). Assessing the risks of cyber terrorism, cyber war and other cyber threats. Washington DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies.

Lewis, J. A. (2005). Computer espionage, Titan Rain, and China. Washington DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies.

Lin, H. (2006). Policy consequences and legal/ethical implications of offensive information operations and cyber attack: National Academies of Science.

Lipinski, T. A. (1999). Information warfare, American style. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, Spring, 10-15.

Locasto, M. E., Stavrou, A., & Keromytis, A. D. (2006). Dark application communities. Paper presented at the 2006 Workshop on New Security Paradigms, Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany.

Long, A. (2006). On “Other War”: Lesson from five decades of RAND counterinsurgency research. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Lowry, J. (2001). An initial foray into understanding adversary planning and courses of action. Paper presented at the DARPA Information Survivability Conference and Exposition 2, Anaheim, CA.

Luard, T. (2005, July 22, 2005). China’s spies come out from the cold International Version. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from

Maconachy, W. V., Schou, C. D., Ragsdale, D., & Welch, D. (2001). A Model for Information Assurance: An Integrated Approach. Paper presented at the 2001 IEEE Workshop on Information Assurance and Security, US Military Academy, West Point, NY.

Manion, M., & Goodrum, A. (2000). Terrorism or civil disobedience: Towards a hacktivist ethic. Computers and Society, June, 14-19.

Mark, R. (2004). The Internet: ‘A dirty mess’ Retrieved October 1, 2008, from

Masse, T. (2006). Homeland security intelligence: Perceptions, statutory definitions, and approaches. Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress.

Masse, T. (2007). Intelligence and information-sharing elements of S. 4 and H.R. 1. Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress.

McCauley-Bell, P., & Freeman, R. (1997). Uncertainty management in information warfare. Paper presented at the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Management, and Cybernetics ‘Computational Cybernetics and Simulation’, Orlando, FL.

McCumber, J. (1991). Information Systems Security: A Comprehensive Model. Paper presented at the 14th National Computer Security Conference, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Baltimore, MD. October.

McCumber, J. (2005). Assessing and managing security risks in IT systems: A structured methodology. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach.

McLean, J. (1985). A comment on the “Basic Security Theorem” of Bell and LaPadula. Information Processing Letters, 20(2).

McQueen, M. A., Boyer, W. F., Flynn, M. A., & Beitel, G. A. (2005). Time-to-compromise model for cyber risk reduction estimation. Idaho Falls, Idaho: Idaho National Laboratory.

Meigs, M. C. (2003). Unorthodox thoughts about asymmetric warfare. Parameters, 2003(Summer), 4-18.

Meinel, C. P. (2004). Cybercrime treaty could chill research. IEEE Security and Privacy(July/August), 28-32.

Meserve, J. (2007, September 26, 2007). Source: Staged cyber attack reveals vulnerability in power grid Retrieved November 1,, 2007, from

Miller, N. L., & Shattuck, L. G. (2006). A dynamic process model for the design and assessment of network centric systems. Paper presented at the Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium: The State of the Art and the State of the Practice, Monterey, California.

Mink, M., & Freiling, F. C. (2006). Is attack better than defense? Teaching information security the right way. Paper presented at the 3rd Annual Conference on Information Security Curriculum Development, Kennesaw, Georgia.

Mitnick, K. D., & Simon, W. (2002). The art of deception: Controlling the human element of security. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing.

Molander, R. C., Riddile, A. S., & Wilson, P. A. (1996). Strategic information warfare: A new face of war. Parameters, 1996(Autumn), 81-92.

Moteff, J. (2006). Critical infrastructure: The national asset database (Vol. RL33648). Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress.

Moteff, J., Copeland, C., & Fischer, J. (2003). Critical infrastructures: What makes an infrastructure critical? (Vol. RL31556). Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress.

Moteff, J. D. (2007). Critical infrastructures: Background, policy, and implementation (Vol. RL30153). Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress.

Mulvenon, J. (2005). Toward a cyberconflict studies research agenda. IEEE Security and Privacy(July/August), 52-55.

Munro, N. (1996). Sketching a national information warfare defense plan. Communications of the ACM, 39(11), 15-17.

Munro, N. (1999). Infowar: AK-47s, lies, and videotape. Communications of the ACM, 42(7), 19-22.

Murdock, P. (2002). Principles of war on the network-centric battlefield: Mass and economy of force. Parameters, 2002(Spring), 86-95.

Murphy, D., & Groh, J. L. (2006). Land power and network-centric operations: How information in today’s battlespace can be exploited (draft). U.S. Army War College: Center for Strategic Leadership.

Myerson, J. M. (2002). Identifying enterprise network vulnerabilities. International Journal of Network Managemetn, 2002(12), 135-144.

National Research Council (2003). Understanding risk: Informing decisions in a democratic society. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council Committee on Risk Characterization.

Neagoe, V., & Bishop, M. (2006). Inconsistency in deception for defense. Paper presented at the 2006 Workshop on New Security Paradigms, Dagstuhl, Germany.

Ning, P., & Xu, D. (2003, October 27-31). Learning attack strategies from intrusion alerts. Paper presented at the 10th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, Washington DC.

Orris, M. (2007). You’ve got hate: Web based terror. Small Wars Journal, 8(May), 2-10.

Padayachee, K. (2002, September 16-18). An interpretive study of software risk management perspectives. Paper presented at the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists, Port Elizabeth, South Africa

Panda, B., & Giordano, J. (1998). An overview of post information warfare data recovery. Paper presented at the Symposium on Applied Computing Atlanta, Georgia.

Panda, B., & Giordano, J. (1999). Defensive information warfare. Communications of the ACM, 42(7), 31-32.

Panda, B., & Yalamanchili, R. (2001). Transaction fusion in the wake of information warfare. Paper presented at the Symposium on Applied Computing, Las Vegas, NV.

Paradis, S., Benaskeur, A., Oxenham, M., & Cutler, P. (2005). Threat evaluation and weapons allocation in network-centric warfare. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION).

Parfomak, P. W. (2007). Vulnerability of concentrated critical infrastructure: Background and policy options (Vol. RL33206). Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress.

Parker, D. B., & Nycum, S. H. (1984). Computer crime. Communications of the ACM, 27(4), 313-321.

Parks, R. C., & Duggan, D. P. (2001). Principles of cyber-warfare. Paper presented at the 2001 IEEE Workshop on Information Assurance and Security, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY.

Pattee, P. G. (2008). Network-centric operations. Air & Space Power Journal(Spring).

Perl, R. F. (2006). Terrorism and national security: Issues and tends (Vol. IB10119). Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress.

Perl, R. F. (2007). International terrorism: Threat, policy, and response (Vol. RL33600). Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress.

Peters, R. (2000). The plague of ideas. Parameters, 2000(Winter), 4-20.

Petersen, R., Larsen, R., Schou, C., & Strickland, L. (2004). What’s in a name? Educause Quarterly, 2004(3), 5-8.

Phister, P. W., & Cherry, J. D. (2004, March 5-12). Knowledge centric operations: Implications to future command and control. Paper presented at the 2005 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana.

Popp, R., Armour, T., Senator, T., & Numrych, K. (2004). Countering terrorism through information technology. Communications of the ACM, 47(3), 36-43.

Price, S. M. (2008). Extending the McCumber Cube to model network defense. Information Systems Security Association Journal, September, 14-18.

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